According to the official proposal, a constitutional amendment must be ratified either by legislators in at least three-quarters of the states or by conventions in the same proportion of states. Of the 27 amendments that were ratified, Congress established the method of ratification by state conventions for only one: the 21st Amendment, which became part of the Constitution in 1933. The informal process used by all branches of government does not really change the Constitution. Instead, it refers to changes in the way we interpret and use it. This can happen when Congress passes or revises laws, when the president expands or revises the role of that office through executive action, and when the courts interpret the meaning and intent of what is contained in the Constitution. Long-standing customs can also be seen as informal changes or additions. If at least two-thirds of state legislatures so request, Congress is required to convene a convention to propose amendments. This provision, many scholars argue, controls Congress` power to limit possible constitutional changes. State legislatures have used their power in the past to request a national convention to pressure Congress to propose a desired change.
The Supreme Court ruled that ratification must take place within “a reasonable time after the proposal.” Beginning with the 18th Amendment, it was common for Congress to set a specific deadline for ratification. In the case of 18, 20, 21 and 22 The change was the seven-year period, but there was no determination as to how long a “reasonable period of time” could be extended. However, once the First Congress met, most of its members were more interested in engaging in “government business” than in considering amendments to the Constitution. In fact, without the perseverance of James Madison, who repeatedly rose up in the House of Representatives to urge the House to consider the promised constitutional amendments, it is unlikely that the First Congress would have even considered them. Proposed in 1989, various members of Congress, including Representative Barney Frank, Representative Steny Hoyer, Representative José Serrano, Representative Howard Berman and Senator Harry Reid, introduced a bill, but each resolution died before it came out of their respective committees. The current amendment limits the president to two elective terms and up to two years to succeed an incumbent president. The last action took place on January 4, 2013, the representative José Serrano proposed to H.J. Res.
15 an amendment to repeal the 22nd Amendment, as it has done every two years since 1997. Formal procedures for amending the Constitution are those governed by article V of the Constitution. These are the methods of Congress and the methods of the Constitutional Convention. In the early 20th century, progressive jurists such as Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes argued that the Constitution “must be viewed in the light of all our experience, not just in the light of what was said a hundred years ago.” Holmes said the law is not a matter of the absolute, but of the “perceived necessities of the time” to be justified by how it contributes “to the achievement of a social goal.” When the First Congress met in 1789, one of its most important promised tasks was to consider a series of constitutional amendments. These should be part of a “Bill of Rights”. Remember that to gain the support of anti-federalists in the fight for ratification, federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution after it came into force. The Constitution of the United States can be amended informally. Informal changes mean that the Constitution does not explicitly list these processes as forms of constitutional amendment, but has de facto altered the rule of law due to changes in society or judicial review. These methods depend on the interpretation of what the Constitution says and an interpretative understanding of the underlying intent. This type of change comes in two main forms: through circumstantial changes and through judicial review.
What really makes the Constitution a living document is not only the 27 written amendments, but also the myriad ways in which the Constitution has been interpreted and implemented by Congress, the President, and the judiciary throughout our history. The result of these informal methods is also vast and influences our lives as well as formal changes. The reluctance to consider amendments to the Constitution was probably due, at least in part, to the fact that dozens of amendments had been proposed in the various state ratification conventions. In considering the amendments, members of Congress were probably concerned that nothing else would be achieved until all the proposed amendments had been considered and voted on. Of the thousands of proposals made to amend the Constitution, only 33 obtained the necessary two-thirds majority in Congress. Of these 33 amendments, only 27 (including the Bill of Rights) have been ratified. This was proposed in 1937 by Representative Louis Ludlow. This change would have severely limited America`s ability to be involved in the war. The absence of further changes can be attributed to the ingenuity of the authors and the flexibility they have incorporated into the document. As we mentioned earlier, in many cases the Constitution has been deliberately left vague, leaving certain aspects of the document to future generations for interpretation. The other amendments have been added over time, mainly through the procedures referred to in Article V of the Constitution.
The 11th guarantees the right to sue a state. The 12th defines the election of the president and the vice-president and the system of relief in the event of death. On the 13th abolished slavery. The 14th specifies the requirements after the Civil War and stipulates that freed slaves are citizens. The 15th explicitly states that all races have all rights. The 16th changes the tax system. The 17th establishes the system for replacing senators. The 18th banned alcohol.
The 19th gives women the right to vote. The 20th corrects some basic government functions. The 21st renders the 18th Amendment inactive, thus lifting the ban on alcohol. The 22nd Amendment states that no one can be elected president for more than 2 terms. The 23rd amends the electoral college. On the 24th. affirms that no one can be prevented from voting because of their tax status. The 25th strengthens the system of replacement of the President and the Vice-President. .